Please view the video of an Institute of Impossible Subjects dialogue on gender and precarity.
Sunday, March 8 at 4 p.m. EST in light of International Women’s Day, IIS hosted a conversation on Gender and Precarity.
Our facebook page with details for the event is at:
And the readings are posted on our tumblr site:
I feel so privileged to have witnessed an amazing multimedio.
Alanna Lockward was the facilitator.
It was an event that represented important border crossing. A recentering of decolonial actions through a dialogue that was intentional and moving. It made me think about how the U.S. portrays Haiti-Dominican Republic relations in ways that focus on the legacies of trauma and violence, as though it is delinked from U.S. imperialisms and colonization. The multimedio grappled with the killing abstraction of racism that has real implications – dividing people through the circulation of dominant narratives. How does one walk across the multiple borders that are reified in categories reinscribed on the body, the land, and in the mind – and dualities of legal/illegal, us/them, citizen/noncitizen, victim/criminal, and human/nonhuman. Where are the possibilities of healing? This multi-medio inspired through reading, listening, speaking, and being together, the decolonial maneuvers of reaching out, to be together, even in times when narratives of violence and difference (i.e., the circulation of the lynching of a Haitian man), continue to hold the center. The multimedio was a intervening in these divides – a desire to come together, alliance, and the speaking to what resonates across boundaries.
An important part of the multimedio is a collective reading of a fragment of Jacques Viau Renaud’s epic poem “Permanencia del llanto” (The Permanence of Weeping). The idea is to document this collective reading of people in both parts of the island and elsewhere, in Spanish, French and English.
Monday February 16 @ 11 am, Saint-Domingue time / 5 pm Europe time
Wednesday February 18 @ 11 am, Saint Domingue time / 5 pm Europe time
Dear friends, I am happy to announce that I have accepted an offer for a tenure track position as an Assistant Professor with University of Utah Ethnic Studies Program and the The University of Utah College of Social Work. I have thoroughly enjoyed being with Institute for Research on Women – Rutgers University and the Department of Women’s and Gender Studies, Rutgers University. The mentorship, support, and opportunities that I have experienced here as a Mellon Fellow has been life changing. My intellectual work, growth, and personhood have been radically changed in this Rutgers space. Although it’s sad to leave New Jersey, I am very much excited about what is in store for me. Please like the programs on Facebook and connect with me if you are interested in collaborating.
By Annie Isabel Fukushima, PhD
On November 25, the Institute for Research on Women, the department of Asian Languages and Cultures, and the Libraries at Rutgers University will host our first event of three events with regard to “Rethinking the Asia Pivot: Challenging Everyday Militarisms & Bridging Communities of Women.” The first event is aninternational webinar that brings together activists from Guam, Japan, Mexico, Okinawa, the Philippines, and South Korea. The activists will discuss the impact of militarisms on communities and how they work to build peace and genuine security in their communities. The event is in collaboration with the Center for Women’s Global Leadership to coincide with the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence Campaign.
The United States has had a long interest in the Asia-Pacific. From the illegal annexation of Hawaii (1898), the occupation of the Philippines and Guam (as well as Puerto Rico and Cuba) at the end of the Spanish American War, and the occupation of Japan, South Korea, among other countries during and after World War II. The United States has long been turning towards Asia. Whether it is for economic reasons, as seen in the development of Transpacific Partnerships, or the build up of military bases as seen in Jeju Island or Heneko, Okinawa, the U.S. has interests in Asia. The pivot to Asia is part of the U.S. military strategy tocontain China, and this intervention is commonly referred to as the “Asia Pivot.”
As the United States turns to Asia through military might and neoliberal economic maneuvers, what are its implications for the people, the land, and other species in the region?
There are lessons to be learned about military exercises; bombing in the Pacific has rendered Bikini Atoll unlivable. Others compare present-day Guam (or Guahan) to the Bikini Atoll. As people are displaced by military buildup, others are displaced by the environmental side-effects of buildup. And place between the Americas and Asia is a sea of islands with people, species, and land. Places where U.S. citizens settle are not immune. As tourists see places like Hawai`i as a vacation destination, the reality of Hawaii is its history and ongoing presence of the U.S. military that has led to the destruction of indigenous lands from Koho`olawe, to Makua Valley, and Pohakuloa. Indigenous peoples like Terri Keko`olani are speaking out about the human costs, impact on the land, and the rights denied due to military expansion and culture. Military exercises are known to leave behind contaminants such as depleted uranium. And some of the waste has yet to be unburied; Agent Orange was discovered in rusty barrels buried in cities in Okinawa – a legacy that the Vietnam War was not only about Southeast Asia. The health consequences of military contaminants are generational; the Alianza de Mujeres Viequenses has been at the forefront exposing the longterm effects of militarization even after demilitarization; Viequenses exhibit high rates of cancer, hypertension, asthma, cirrhosis, and other respiratory illnesses related to military contamination of environments.
The violence of military cultures is not only environmental, but also has material effects that come to the fore during crises. The International Women’s Network Against Militarism, a network of scholars and activists, was founded in 1997 in response to violence occurring on military bases. In particular, the rape of an Okinawan girl by U.S. military servicemen led to public outcry sparking the birth of an international women’s network to address human rights violations related to military buildup. As Cynthia Enloe has demonstrated, military violence that takes the shape of acts such as rape, cannot be seen as the actions of a “few bad apples.” Instead, sexual violence, rape, and trafficking must be contextualized by race, gender, and nation, that have visual, textual and material effects. Sexual violence has been a long-time concern for activists – from rape of military personnel to civilians; sexual violence is just as present on the frontline as it is on the fenceline of military bases. “Unknowable” numbers paint a picture of the politics surrounding U.S. actions and inactions towards rape, sexual violence, and trafficking – who is to be protected? Who and what is expendable? In fact the 21stcentury inheritance of war and sexual violence is not only a battle of weapons, but also history and memory. As Japan attempts to sweep its militarized sexual slavery under the rug, what do the visible narratives about U.S. military culture, rape, and (sexual) violence say about us? In 2006 Filipinas organized to raise visibility surrounding the rape by Lance Corporal Daniel Smith. The rape led to media and political discussions surrounding the Visiting Forces Agreement, Philippine sovereignty, gender-based violence, and military cultures. Gendered-base violence, such as the events surrounding rape cannot be disaggregated from the geopolitics of a U.S. turn to Asia as tied to neoliberal policies, military interventions, gendered and national subjectivities, and the transnational flow of people, goods, and ideas, in the region and to the U.S.
To call our event “Rethinking the Asia Pivot,” is to call for new interventions in thinking and practice. Therefore, the inspiration for the events include scholarly thinking and activism, as well as the role of the visual in (re)shaping how one may see (or not see) a military turn to Asia.
In 2013, I received an email regarding Sonoma County Museum’s “Camellia has Fallen.” The exhibit featured the works of artists reflecting on 1948, where the army executed thousands of residents on the island (~60,000) because the island was seen as Communist. From acrylic to video installations the artists uncovered histories of trauma. The exhibit is named for a “1991 painting of red camellias in the snow by South Korean artist Kang Yo Bae, recalling a folk story of the flowers falling like drops of blood in the massacre.” In late 2013, the artists and curators were looking for the next home for the exhibit. Where would these important works travel to next? Why not Rutgers? And so, we were able to bring some of the digital works to Rutgers.
At the time Obama was making plans to visit Asian countries to discuss the Transpacific Partnership, as military buildup continued on Jeju Island and Okinawa, and rape of military personnel by their peers made regular headline news. What does the turn to Asia mean for the people in Asia and the Pacific? What does it hold for the Americas?
Therefore, in late 2013, I convened a small committee: myself, Suzy Kim (author ofEveryday Life in the North Korean Revolution, 1945 – 1950) and Kayo Denda (head librarian, Margery Somers Foster Center, Douglass Library). We reached out to the Center for Women’s Global Leadership, and “Rethinking the Asia Pivot” was born. “Rethinking the Asia Pivot” at Rutgers University is possible due to the solidarity and organizing amongst women of color faculty at Rutgers in service to our community and students.
Our collaboration led us to ask important questions surrounding the Asia pivot: How will the pivot impact Asia and the Americas broadly (and how has it historically impacted the Americas)? How do women, scholars, activists, and political leaders respond to the changing climate of security and increased securitization through the military? What’s at stake for women, human rights, the environment, and nations? What are the health implications of militarisms from environmental impacts to physiological and psychological impacts of living near or on military bases? How are such health impacts gendered? What are the environmental consequences of natural disasters and the subsequent impact of disaster militarism on local communities? What are the generational impacts of military policies – for young people recruited, veterans, their families, local communities and nations?
Through digital works on display, transnational discussions in a webinar, and scholarly and activist discussions in panels, we hope to critically engage together with event participants “rethinking the Asia pivot.” The events comprise of artists, scholars, and activists from Denmark, Guam, Japan, Massachusetts, Mexico, New Jersey, New York, Okinawa, the Philippines, and South Korea. To kick off 16 Days of Activism Campaign, we begin with an international webinar on November 25, 6PM EST. On December 3, films will be screened. The films discuss the ghosts of Jeju that haunt the present, the migrations, dislocations and spectacles produced through the making of the Panama Canal, and the relation between water, sexual economies, and bases in the Philippines. Artist works featured include: Michelle Dizon’s Basing Landscapes, Dalida Maria Benfield’s Hotel Panama, Kakyoung Lee’s Burning Island, The Dawn of Jeju 4.3 by Manamongs, Im Heung Soon’s Sungsi, and Reiterations of Dissent by Jane Jin Kaisen. To rethink the pivot towards Asia requires conversations that bring in history, representation, policy, and practice. Therefore, the finale event occurs on December 4: it is our international symposium featuring Cynthia Enloe as the keynote. Panelists will discuss themes related to history, technology, visuality, narrativity, representation, strategies, policy and violence. To engage with the visual culture of the pivot to Asia, digital works will be on display throughout the entire day.
We invite you to join us during the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence Campaign to address gendered-violence and human rights.
Please visit: rethinkingasiapivot.com for more information.
Sister events are occurring in New York City, Washington D.C., and San Francisco.
Annie Isabel Fukushima is an Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow with the Institute for Research on Women and the Department of Women’s and Gender Studies at Rutgers University (2013 – 2015). Dr. Fukushima’s chapters appears in Human Trafficking Reconsidered: Rethinking the Problem, Envisioning New Solutions (2014) edited by sociologists Rhacel Salazar Parrenas and Kimberly Kay Hoang and in Documenting Gendered Violence edited by Lisa Cuklanz and Heather McIntosh. Her work discusses an array of issues on race, gender, and sexuality with regard to trafficking, intimacy, violence, and militarisms. Currently she is revising her manuscript Migrant Crossings.
Today I had the great pleasure of being on a panel with Dr. Walter Rucker, “Gold Coast Diasporas: Identity, Culture, and Power” and Dr. Bayo Holsey, “Tyranny of Freedom: Race, Power, and the Fictions of Late Capitalism.” I shared my manuscript in progress, Migrant Crossings: Unsettling Witnessing of Asian and Latinas/os in the United States. Powerful work was shared during our panel discussion titled, “Crossings.” This event was hosted by the Center for Race and Ethnicity as the 9th Faculty Forum on Race and Ethnicity. Dr. Ann Fabian offered great questions and contextualization for our diverse and intersecting works.
Our panel was followed by discussions on “American Inequalities” and panel presentations from Dr. Lisa L. Miller, Dr. Lauren Krivo, and Dr. Dweston Haywood; a discussion facilitated by Dr. Naa Oyo Kwate.
Thank you Mia Kissil for organizing the event.
More about the Center for Race and Ethnicity at Rutgers may be found here.
PDF of Flyer: FeministPedagogies
SPRING 2015 GRADUATE COURSE OFFERING
Department of Women’s and Gender Studies
MARY K. TRIGG
ANNIE ISABEL FUKUSHIMA
Tuesdays 2, 3
10:55 to 1:55 Ruth Dill Johnson Crockett Bldg. 011
Feminist Pedagogies encompass epistemology, theory and practice surrounding feminist teaching and learning. Feminist pedagogies develop an understanding about knowledge production surrounding gender, sexuality, race, class, and nation. In this graduate course, students will grapple with model feminist pedagogies in the classroom and the challenges instructors and professors navigate when discussing “difficult matters.” This class will engage with issues of power and authority, care, community in the classroom, as well as performance, resistance, difference, and dangerous memories. Our course will also include an applied aspect and will provide a platform for graduate students to receive peer and faculty feedback on feminist teaching with regards to facilitating class, structuring a syllabus, and teaching portfolios. This course is highly recommended for students who have teaching experience or who are teaching during spring semester 2015.
I forgot how much fun I have designing/laying out and coordinating events.
I have created the website: http://rethinkingasiapivot.com/
I am thrilled to be a part of the an exciting symposium happening at Rutgers right now:
Marking Time: Prison Arts and Activism Conference
Organized and Hosted by the Institute for Research on Women, Rutgers, New Brunswick
October 8-10 2014
Visit the conference website for a view of the entire program: http://irw.rutgers.edu/programs/conferences
Join me at the panel I am moderating:
PANEL: Narrating Injustice: Youth and Mass Incarceration (BSF)
9:30AM – 10:45AM, Friday, October 10 at the Bloustein School Forum
Sean Saifa M. Wall (Independent Artist)
“Letters to an Unborn Son”
Richard Mora and Mary Christianakis (Occidental College)
“(Re)writing Identities: Past, Present, and Future Narratives of Young People in Juvenile Detention Facilities”
Beth Ohlsson (Independent Educator)
“Reaching through the Cracks: Connecting Incarcerated Parents with their Children through Story”
Moderator: Annie Fukushima (Rutgers-New Brunswick)
Join me for the 2014 Asians in the Americas annual symposium, October 1 – 3, 2014.
To view information for the entire conference visit: https://sites.google.com/site/asiansintheamericas2014/program
I will be moderating the “Comparative Ethnic Studies” Panel. Join me for what will be an exciting conversation.
PANEL 4: COMPARATIVE ETHNIC STUDIES
Moderator: Annie Fukushima (Rutgers University-New Brunswick)
Julia H. Lee (University of California, Irvine)Transnational Anna (intersection of Asian American subject formation and U.S. histories of empire in Asia in the figure and writings of Anna Chennault)Kavitha Ramsamy (Rutgers University-New Brunswick)Anti-Asianism in the United States: The ‘Dotbuster’ Attacks of the 1980s in Jersey CityK. Kale Yu (Nyack College)Outside of Evangelical Mainstream: Jeremy Lin and Asian American EvangelicalismSayu Bhojwani (Rutgers University-New Brunswick) South Asian Panethnicity: Resonant Identity and Organizing Tool
Save the date and follow this website. I am organizing with faculty at Rutgers a symposium that takes place on December 4th.
Rethinking the Asia “Pivot”: Challenging Everyday Militarisms & Bridging
Communities of Women
December 4th, 2014
Alexander Library, 4th Floor
Rutgers University, New Brunswick
An international symposium with a digital exhibit, international webinar, drumming, and speakers
Time/Space: Histories & Technologies of Militarism
Kornel Chang, Annie Isabel Fukushima, Chie Ikeya, Moderated by Suzy Kim
Visuality/Narrativity: Representations of Everyday Militarism
Dalida Maria Benfield, Michelle Dizon, Jane Jin Kaisen, Kakyoung Lee, Tammy Ko Robinson, moderated by Theodore Hughes
Strategy/Policy: Organizing against Militarism & Violence
Kozue Akibayashi, Zaire Dinzey-Flores, Ko Youkyoung, Suzuyo Takazato, moderated by Gloria Bachmann
Keynote Speaker, Cynthia Enloe, Ph.D., author of Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (2000), Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives (2004), The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in The New Age of Empire (2004) and Globalization and Militarism: Feminists Make the Link (2007).
And an event preceding the symposium on November 25, International Webinar featuring Kozue Akibayashi (Japan), Corazon Fabros (Philippines), Lisa Natividad (Guam), Suzuyo Takazato (Okinawa), and Sunghee Choi (South Korea). Details coming soon.
Race and Racism in the United States: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic edited by Charles Gallagher and Cameron Lippard is now available for purchase. I wrote the bundle on “Intimate Relations”, covering a range of issues including anti-miscegenation laws, mixed race/ethnicity intimate relations, domestic violence, and LGBT communities. This encyclopedia holds a wide range of resources/information, that every library and educational institution should have.
There is also an e-book available; you may call the publisher to inquire about this.
Description from the publishers:
In the 21st century, it is easy for some students and readers to believe that racism is a thing of the past; in reality, old wounds have yet to heal, and new forms of racism are taking shape. Racism has played a role in American society since the founding of the nation, in spite of the words “all men are created equal” within the Declaration of Independence. This set is the largest and most complete of its kind, covering every facet of race relations in the United States while providing information in a user-friendly format that allows easy cross-referencing of related topics for efficient research and learning.
The work serves as an accessible tool for high school researchers, provides important material for undergraduate students enrolled in a variety of humanities and social sciences courses, and is an outstanding ready reference for race scholars. The entries provide readers with comprehensive content supplemented by historical backgrounds, relevant examples from primary documents, and first-hand accounts. Information is presented to interest and appeal to readers but also to support critical inquiry and understanding. A fourth volume of related primary documents supplies additional reading and resources for research.
A. Fukushima/ Societies Without Borders 9:1 (2014) 132-134
The Anti-Slavery Project: From Slave Trade to Human Trafficking By Joel Quirk
Annie Isabel Fukushima
University of Pennsylvania Press
Joel Quirk’s The Anti-slavery Project examines the evolving political project of the anti-slavery movement. Quirk is wary of the separation between historical and contemporary slavery, therefore, grapples with developing an understanding of definitions concerning slavery, legal measures that impact the interpretation and practice of slavery, the limitations and strengths of the legal abolition movement, and terms that create connections between “classical slavery” and contemporary slavery. As such, Quirk disrupts the division between historical and contemporary slavery by offering a new concept: the “Anti-Slavery Project.” The Anti-Slavery Project is “an ongoing task, or undertaking which has gone through a number of phases, and to a distinct form of historical project” that is regularly compared to transatlantic slavery (5). Quirk investigates the discursive development of the anti-slavery movement in Britain, which has had international implications in the twenty-first century. An overarching argument in The Anti-Slavery Project is that little has improved with the implementation of legal abolition, as evidenced through the analysis of historical events including the legal abolition of slavery, history of the British anti-slavery movement and colonialism, and a discursive analysis of discrimination and debt. The existence of slavery and slave-like practices and the growth of human bondage are endemic to the failures of legal abolition. Quirk contends that the failure of legal abolition is due to ideologies that perpetuate difference and social discrimination. The method in The Anti- Slavery Project delineates that an interdisciplinary approach is central to conceptualizing slavery through history, the law, and politics. To read the rest of the review click.
Join me on Friday.
At the end of the The Escape & Rescued Memories: New York Stories at Asia Society, there will be a panel.
I will be on a panel discussing Lenora Lee’s performance with Song Kim ( Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund) and Purvi Shah (http://purvipoets.net), moderated by Dan Bacalzo (NYU Drama Department),
FRIDAY, MAY 9, 2014 · 8pm
725 Park Avenue
Tickets: $15 general public, $10 Asia Society members, $12 students/seniors. Groups of 8 or more people can purchase at a discount. Email Lenora@asianimprov.org for group discount code. For tickets / info (212) 517-2742 or visit www.asiasociety.org/nyc
The Escape & Rescued Memories: New York Stories, Directed by A/P/A Institute at NYU Visiting Scholar LENORA LEE, is an interdisciplinary performance with dance, martial arts, film, text and music. Performed by an Asian American cast of 10 dancers and martial artists from San Francisco and New York City, these works utilize the interplay between live performance and film. The performance draws upon voiceover of first hand accounts, contracts and court documents found in the archives at Donaldina Cameron House and the Library of Congress, highlighting the lives of women who were at the forefront of the early Chinatown communities at the turn of the 19th century.
On May 9, Dan Bacalzo (NYU Drama Department and Hunter College Asian American Studies Program) moderates a post-performance conversation featuring Lenora Lee, Purvi Shah (non-profit consultant, anti-violence advocate, and writer), Annie Fukushima (Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Associate, Women’s and Gender Studies and the Institute for Research on Women, Rutgers University), and Song Kim (Kirkland and Ellis Fellow, Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund).
Description of the Performance (Full length description at Lenora Lee’s website: http://www.lenoraleedance.com/2014/03/new-york-premiere-may-8-9-2014-at-asia-society/)
|COLLOQUIUM: An American Haunting: From Exclusions to the Ghost Case|
Presented by Dr. Annie Isabel Fukushima,
Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Associate in Women’s and Gender Studies
Response: Prof. Kathy Lopez, History and LHCS
Ruth Adams Seminar Room 018
Wednesday, April 30, 2014 | 11:45-1:15 | Lunch served | Paper will be pre-circulated
To RSVP, please email Liz Reilly email@example.com
The paper is premised on Dr. Fukushima’s role as an expert witness in a case that has multiple names: “Chinese blessing fraud,” “Street scam” and the “Chinese Ghost Case.” Fukushima grapples with the ghosts that haunt anti-violence narratives through examining the “Ghost Case.” The Ghost case is a part of a genealogy of events (i.e., exclusions, the coolie laborer, sexual slavery, human smuggling and Golden Venture, U.S. v. Kil Soo Lee, and Fang Ping Ding). Dr. Fukushima’s research employs media, legal, and sociological analysis of the ghosts in the media and legal coverage of human trafficking – the ghosts of immigration, human trafficking and violence. As migrants cross into visibility in the U.S. legal system, their legibility is made possible by how they are witnessed, narrated, and tethered to being seen as victims/criminals, citizen/noncitizens, and illegal/legal.
Annie Isabel Fukushima, Ph.D. is an Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Associate in Women’s and Gender Studies and with the Institute for Research on Women at Rutgers University (2013 – 2015). Fukushima received her Ph.D. in Ethnic Studies with a Designated Emphasis in Women, Gender & Sexuality at the University of California, Berkeley. More about Dr. Fukushima: anniefukushima.com
|Location Ruth Adams Building 018 Douglass|
Join me at the Association for Asian American Studies Conference.
“Language in Asian/American Performance and Translation
Studies” (Cypress B)
Grand Hyatt, San Francisco
11:30AM – 12:45PM, Friday, April 18
Discussant: Evelyn Ho (University of California, San Francisco)
Annie Isabel Fukushima (Rutgers University) – Remembering
and Witnessing an American Haunting in the Chinese Ghost
Case / ‘Blessing Scam’
Bomi Yoon (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities) –
Homemaking for Transnational Adoptees in Sun Mee Chomet’s
How to Be a Korean Woman
Earl Yin-Wei Liao – The Present of the Detained Body: Poetic
Practice as Bridging Racial Form
General conference information, visit: http://aaastudies.org/content/
April 4, 2014 9AM – 10:30AM, CPM 102, Mills College, National Association for Ethnic Studies, http://ethnicstudies.org/
Annie Isabel Fukushima, Rutgers University
Rebekah Garrison, University of Southern California
Ayano Ginoza, University of California, Los Angeles
Gwyn Kirk, Sonoma State University
Our workshop provides a critical pedagogical space to think about teaching about militarism in colleges. The workshop engages participants to theorize and share models that are implemented in classrooms to engage college students in critical analysis, activist partnership and accountability for militarism and military violence. Our research, teaching, and methods are informed by our collective engagement with the International Women’s Network Against Militarism that presently includes scholars, activists, and students from the Guam, Hawai‘i, Japan, Korea, Vieques, Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. We address: what challenges, opportunities, and assumptions occur through teaching demilitarization? What epistemologies and discourses shape student and teacher perceptions of milit arism? Reading materials, films, visual imagery, social media, performance, creative works, supplemental handouts, assignment samples, sample syllabi, and scholarly texts will be introduced and discussed.
3PM, March 20, 2014
Kuykendall 420, University of Hawaii, Manoa
Annie Isabel Fukushima’s manuscript Asian and Latina/o Migrant Crossings and the Invisible/Visible Paradigm of Human Trafficking examines homosocial violence and transnational migration and economies. This presentation offers insight into one of Fukushima’s chapters. The chapter is premised on Fukushima’s role as an expert witness in a case that has multiple names: “Chinese blessing fraud,” “Street scam” and the “Chinese Ghost Case.” Fukushima grapples with the ghosts that haunt anti-trafficking narratives through examining the “Ghost Case.” To examine the ghosts in anti-trafficking narratives Fukushima contextualizes the Ghost case in a genealogy of events (i.e., exclusions, the coolie laborer, sexual slavery, human smuggling and Golden Venture, U.S. v. Kil Soo Lee, and Fang Ping Ding). Fukushima’s research employs media, legal, and sociological analysis of the ghosts in the media and legal coverage of human trafficking – the ghosts of immigration and human trafficking. The ghost case was received as the human trafficking event that did, and did not happen (Beth Povinelli’s concept of a quasi-event) and is reflective of a particular anxiety that perseveres in the U.S. present around the transnational migrant who navigates U.S. legal systems; such migrants are positioned as inhabiting a particular threshold between criminality and victimhood, even before a sentencing occurs. As migrants cross into visibility in the U.S. legal system, their legibility is made possible by how they are witnessed as victims/criminals, citizen/noncitizens, and illegal/legal. Through examining how one crosses into visibility, what are the ghosts that haunt anti-trafficking legal, media, and sociological imaginaries?
Also, picked up by Asia Times Online http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Japan/JAP-01-120314.html
Disaster Militarism: Rethinking U.S. Relief in the Asia-Pacific
By Annie Isabel Fukushima , Ayano Ginoza , Michiko Hase , Gwyn Kirk , Deborah Lee and Taeva Shefler , March 11, 2014 .
Disaster relief is not the military’s primary mission, role, or area of expertise. But disaster response missions facilitate military expansion and dominance. (Photo: cmccain202dc / Flickr)
March 11 marks the third anniversary of the 9.0-magnitude earthquake that shook northeastern Japan in 2011, triggering a tsunami in a dual disaster that killed more than 16,000 people. The earthquake and tsunami caused the worst nuclear disaster in history with three meltdowns at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Three years after the catastrophe,136,000 people from Fukushima prefecture are still displaced, and numerous disaster-related deaths have resulted from stress-related illnesses and suicide. Because of the nuclear meltdown, highly radioactive material continues to leak into the ocean, presenting numerous technical challenges with no solution yet in sight. This environmental contamination, which has impacted residents, workers, and military personnel responders, will have a global effect. Lessons learned from Chernobyl suggest that all this is only the tip of the iceberg.
“The Great East Japan Earthquake” is just one of several massive disasters in the Asia-Pacific this past decade. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami took the lives of 230,000 people in 14 countries. Most recently, Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) ripped through Samar and Leyte in the Philippines, causing 6,000 deaths last November. The Philippines has witnessed several other devastating typhoons, including Ketsana (Ondoy) in 2009 and Bopha (Pablo) in 2012. A rising pattern of intense storms and disasters in the Asia-Pacific region has led to the death and displacement of thousands of people and the destruction of essential urban and rural infrastructure such as roads, bridges, schools, health centers, and workplaces.
Paralleling these disasters has been the disaster response of the U.S. military. According to this “disaster militarism”—which is a pattern of rhetoric, beliefs, and practices—the military should be the primary responder to large-scale disasters. Disaster militarism is not only reflected in the deployment of troops but also in media discourse that naturalizes and calls for military action in times of environmental catastrophes.
Justifying U.S. Military Presence
Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) operations, such as Operation Damayan in the Philippines in 2013 and Operation Tomodachi (Friend) in Japan in 2011, have showcased the U.S. military’s “helpfulness,” legitimized its presence, and softened its image. Charles-Antoine Hofmann and Laura Hudson, researching this topic for the British Red Cross, note several factors driving the growing military interest in responding to disasters. Assisting relief efforts, they observed, can improve the military’s image and provide training opportunities. It is also a way for the military to diversify its role when armed forces face budget cuts.
Disaster relief has also become part of the justification for increased U.S. troop deployments in the Asia-Pacific region—even as the new military basing component of the “Pacific Pivot” has met with strong opposition in Okinawa, Japan and Jeju, South Korea. This massive permanent presence in the Asia-Pacific region has enabled the U.S. military to be the “first and fastest” to respond to sudden calamity. The Pacific Command boasts 330,000 personnel (one-fifth of all U.S. forces), 180 ships, and 2,000 aircraft in an area that spans half the earth’s surface and is home to half the earth’s population.
Disaster relief is not the military’s primary mission, role, or area of expertise. Nevertheless, disaster response missions facilitate military expansion and dominance. Yoshiyuki Uehara, the vice-governor of Okinawa at the time of the earthquake and tsunami, has opposed the plan to construct a new offshore U.S. Marine base on the island. “I hope we stop glorifying Operation Tomodachi,” he warned. “Our gratitude [for U.S. military assistance after the earthquake and tsunami] and U.S. military base problems are separate issues.” The core of Operation Tomodachi was Joint Task Force 519 from the United States Pacific Command. Arguably, the response to disaster was a perfect opportunity for the United States to demonstrate to China that an immediate U.S.-Japan joint military operation was possible.
The United States spent $80 million for this operation. Less than three weeks after the Fukushima disaster, Japan promised to increase its Host Nation Support from three to five years and to pay 188 million yen annually for U.S. military facilities in the country. The U.S. government used the rhetoric of disaster militarism to justify Japan’s dependence on U.S. military forces and the high concentration of U.S. bases in tiny Okinawa. The Okinawa Times argued that this was a clear “political exploitation of the earthquake disaster.”
This was not the first time that disaster relief was used to further larger geopolitical and military goals. The rapid mobilization of assistance using military capabilities from the United States, Japan, India, and Australia in the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami “set the ball rolling for a four-way security dialogue a few years later,” former Australian diplomat Rory Metcalf has argued. Just weeks after Typhoon Haiyan, meanwhile, the Philippine and U.S. governments were touting relief efforts as justification for the need for a new long-term agreement for greater bilateral military cooperation and an increased U.S. military presence in the Philippines (the Philippine constitution currently bans permanent troops and bases). Washington has used disaster militarism as additional leverage to pressure the Philippine government to accept a mutual defense agreement.
The race to provide relief for political leverage is not limited to the United States. China offered its 14,000-ton floating military hospital, the Peace Ark, for Haiyan relief efforts—its first humanitarian response operation. Japan also sent military forces to the Philippines for relief work, in cooperation with the U.S. military, a political effort by the current Japanese government to secure a greater military role overseas.
The Contradictions of Disaster Militarism
The conflation of military power and disaster relief is highly problematic. It is not cost-effective, efficient, or transparent.Military operations exhaust limited budgets for humanitarian assistance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction activities. Confusion about the military’s role as soldiers or relief providers can lead to suspicion and fear, and some people may not access relief as a result. According to the Department of Defense, the Pacific Command offers not only aid to countries in the region dealing with disasters, but also “forms of advice and assistance, training, satellite imagery or intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance support.” More troops on the ground offer greater opportunities for the gathering of intelligence. Revelations that a CIA-funded fake vaccination program in Pakistan was used to find and kill Osama bin Laden provide another example of co-mingling humanitarian relief and military operations, rightly contributing to civilian confusion, public distrust, and questions of transparency and accountability.
Disaster militarism does not address the underlying causes for the increasing number of intense storms and natural disasters. Nor can disaster militarism be separated from the U.S. military’s record as a the “worst polluter on the planet” for its “uninhibited use of fossil fuels, massive creation of greenhouse gases, and extensive release of radioactive and chemical contaminants into the air, water, and soil,” as a recent Project Censored story detailed. In times of disaster, the U.S. military positions itself as a “savior” and attempts to obscure its role as a major contributor to the rise of climate disasters.
There is certainly an urgent need for disaster preparedness, with trained emergency personnel in local communities as well as international teams. The first responders in disasters are families, neighbors, community groups, professional organizations, churches, international humanitarian organizations, and governments. Resources should go to these local institutions to strengthen their capacity to respond to disasters and continue the work when emergency teams have all gone home. Padayon sa Pag-laum (Hope After Haiyan or WEDPRO) and other local Philippine organizations focus their relief efforts on the needs of the most vulnerable sectors of society, especially women and children. Their longer-term goal is to co-create solutions for a more resilient, more sustainable, and more inclusive future for the communities affected by the typhoon.
Nor should we wait for climate disasters to hit before we respond. Long-term and sustained resources should be made available ahead of time, especially to countries like the Philippines that experience typhoons on a regular basis. This would make for greater local independence in allocating relief resources.
It would also lessen dependency on military operations. World military expenditure totaled a massive $1.75 trillion in 2012, with the United States and its allies responsible for the vast majority. These expenditures, which have made disaster militarism such a prominent feature of humanitarian relief operations, have not created more security for individuals, nations, or the planet. The alternative approach, human security, requires a physical environment that can support life, guarantees people’s material needs for livelihood, food, and shelter, and protects people and the environment from avoidable harm. To minimize the impact of climate disasters—and reduce the contributing factors to the uptick in hurricanes, typhoons, and big storms—the disaster militarism model must give way to the human security model as soon as possible.
Sociologists Kimberly Kay Hoang and Rhacel Salazar Parrenas are the co-editors of an anthology titled, Human Trafficking Reconsidered: Rethinking the Problem, Envision New Solutions. The anthology brings together a diversity of perspectives from a wide-range of disciplines (academic and beyond academia).
My chapter, “The Limitations of End Demand Strategies,” included in the anthology, examines the heternormative, gender, and race, limitations of current end demand strategies. My chapter is an invitation to think beyond supply and demand as a strategy in anti-trafficking efforts.
Call for Submissions
An anthology, co-edited by five feminist scholars of color – Annie Isabel Fukushima, Rosalee Gonzalez, Layli Maparyan, Anita Revilla, and Matt Richardson – propels the mission of TWP by bringing together a variety of expertise and interests to this project and striving for an inclusive approach to sharing the experiences of people of color and Indigenous Peoples engaged in local and transnational social change.
About the Publisher
Third Woman Press (TWP) bridges transnational, Third World communities in resistance that understand and develop historical and site-specific thought as central to global decolonization. Third Woman Press strives to critique and dismantle hegemonic models of what counts as knowledge, its production, its circulation, and its interpretation. In doing so, the Press brings together an alter community of critical scholars, artists and activists committed to bringing many silenced voices from the margins to the center of knowledge production. TWP fosters, bridges, and expands access to the work of activist thinkers and actors invested in our decolonization. We acknowledge the power of the relationship between the writer/artist and the reader/viewer to invite and precipitate transformation in the material, physical and spiritual conditions of our existence. We encourage critical attention to not only the deepening of existing economic, social, cultural, civil, political, and spiritual injustices but also to the emergence of new ones. Third Woman Press is committed to the promotion of self-knowledge for Third World peoples and a dynamic language for self-authorized transfiguration.
The Co-Editors’ Goals
We situate this forthcoming anthology in conversation with a body of writers, artists, activists, and scholars who have over the years contributed to a genealogy of feminisms in collections such as This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (1981), Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (1983), Making Waves: An Anthology of Writings by and about Asian American Women (1989), Making Face, Making Soul/Haciendo Caras: Creative and Critical Perspectives by Feminists of Color (1990), this bridge we call home: radical visions for transformation (2002), among other collections of work. Historically, collections of women of color feminisms have radically transformed United States (U.S.) perspectives through centralizing the voices of women of color and Indigenous women within the U.S.
We continue the vision of producing critical writings and art that transform lives within the U.S. These cultural and theoretical productions form coalitions across nation-state boundaries through decolonial and/or transnational feminisms. As an editorial collective, we believe that the relationships built by and among women of color and Indigenous women in the U.S. has enabled multiple solidarities inspired by those forged within from Global South. 21st century feminisms produce important interventions such as: disrupting the border of the nation-state, disrupting hetero/homonormativities and dominant feminist ideologies, and reshaping epistemologies and knowledge about women, women of color, queer, queer of color, cis, transgender.
With this project, we wish to form connections amongst diasporic feminists, feminist/womanist, Indigenous feminists, queer people of color, and women of color across generations and locations. Because the alliances built by feminists and queers of color in the U.S. are deeply shaped by the global south/Third World perspectives, we extend an invitation to individuals and collectives in and outside of the U.S., including those that may offer a transnational perspective. We invite submissions from decolonial feminists, Indigenous feminists, queer of color feminists, transgender of color feminists, transnational feminists, women of color feminists, and womanists who address: What is a feminist epistemology, methodology and practice in the 21st century for radical queer and feminists of color? Recognizing that coalitions are forged across time and space, how are feminist knowledges of the present informed by history and visions of a new present? What new alliances have been forged that must be brought to the center, since the 1981 bridge built by radical feminists of color? What are the processes, contentions and achievements when building links that enable solidarity and social change?
Submit Your Work!
We encourage contributions that are in conversation (directly or indirectly) with the body of feminist/womanist works that have come before and that continue to shape queer and feminist of color epistemology and practice. We seek scholarly and creative essays, testimonials, poetry, and art that will contribute to our understanding and practices of social change, healing, and transformation.
We will address the hegemony of English in this text; therefore, we invite works that offer critical insight into language and queer, people of color, and Indigenous feminisms within the U.S. and beyond. Given our commitment to both local and transnational perspectives, we invite bilingual and non-English submissions. However, because our editorial collective is unable to represent all languages of the world, we invite non-English contributions to either submit a bilingual (translated) text or consider inviting a collaborator who can translate the work into English and the interpreter will be credited in the published anthology.
We strongly encourage the submission of works that bring into dialogue issues and concerns relevant to women of color feminisms, decolonial feminisms, Indigenous feminisms, womanisms, queer of color feminisms, and transnational feminisms. Submissions previously published in only journals will be considered. Submissions may be co-authored. Topics may include the following, but are not limited to this list:
· Women’s resistance and resilience
· Activism and organizing
· Activist scholarship and activist pedagogy
· Art and artivism
· Spirituality and spiritual practice
· Feminist and queer love
· Feminist genealogies
· Memory and haunting
· Queer and Trans people of color
· Violence, oppression, and resistance
· Healing and transformation
· Visual culture and decolonized aesthetics
· Womanism and womanist perspectives on social/ecological change
Submit full essays as Word documents and/or high-resolution images of original artwork as JPEG files for consideration by May 15, 2014, 11:59 pm PDT. Include with the submission a 300-word abstract and 50-word biography (PDF or Word document). Manuscripts must not exceed 20 pages (5,000 words).
Please direct inquiries for the Third Woman Press anthology co-editors to:firstname.lastname@example.org.